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1-Methylhydantoin-2-imide (Tego Cosmo). Blocks the enzyme that produces melanin to reduce discoloration.
Accharomyces/Xylinum/Black Tea Ferment (Kombuchka). Enhances skin radiance and luster; decreases yellow and grey tones.
Algae Extract. From seaweed, Algae is claimed to help prevent wrinkles, moisturize and purify the skin.
Allantoin. A substance known for its healing, soothing and anti-irritating properties. Softens skin and stimulates the formation of healthy tissue. Helps eliminate chapping and cracking, leaving skin silky, smooth and healthy-looking. Found in herbs such as comfrey, wheat and sugar beets.
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract (Aloe). Moisturizes, soothes, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids. Ingredients that aid exfoliation by weakening the links between cells in the outer layer of dead skin, allowing the normal shedding process to occur at a more optimum rate. By helping new cells surface, they improve skin texture, unclog pores and facilitate absorption of moisturizers. It may also help play a role in building skin-firming collagen and elastin, especially when incorporated into a two-step chemical peel. AHAs include lactic (from dairy products), glycolic (from sugar), malic (from apples) and citric (from citrus fruits).
Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). Reduces fine lines and wrinkles immediately.
Antioxidants. Serve as the antidote to free radicals by neutralizing their detrimental effects on collagen in the skin. For example, visualize free radicals as tiny darts poking holes in collagen. The bad news: As we age, our bodies no longer produce sufficient antioxidants to fight free radicals. The good news: Just as there are different species of free radicals, modern science has identified different kinds of antioxidants to combat them.
Apricot Kernel Oil. Natural Ingredient. High quality skin softener that is very pleasant for men's skin. Natural oil of the apricot (persic oil) which leaves no oily film on skin, a benefit that is very important to men.
Arbutin. Inhibits melanin production in the skin.
Arnica Extract. An ingredient that improves the appearance of dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness.
Ascorbic Acid Polypeptide. A reaction product of ascorbic acid and hydrolyzed protein.
Avobenzone (Parsol 1789). A chemical sunscreen that offers broad range protection against UVA rays.
Avocado Oil. Natural ingredient. One of nature's finest skin softeners. Natural oil of the avocado. Skin softener and conditioner which leave no oily film on the skin, a benefit that is very important to men.
Ayurvedic Medicine. Refers to a form of holistic, alternative medicine developed in India. The term "ayurveda" derives from two Sanskrit words: ayu, meaning life, and veda, meaning science. Ayurvedic skincare focuses on plant extracts and essential oils.
Azulene. An anti-inflammatory with calming properties. Derived from German chamomile. Used in aromatherapy it gives a characteristic chamomile smell to shampoos and cosmetics, as well as natural color.
Bamboo. Mild exfoliating agent.
Basil. Essential Oil. Fresh, light, slightly spicy. A refreshing, tonic action that benefits sluggish and congested skin.
Beeswax. Natural Wax. A natural emollient that has been used to keep skin soft since the time of the ancient Egyptians. Produced by bees, useful in preparation of creams and lotions it is non-comedogenic and an antioxidant with free radical scavenger abilities. Bentonite. A clay that dries down to absorb oil from the skin.
Bentonite. Natural volcanic ash clay that helps to tighten pores. Used externally for "drawing" ability in facial masks, absorbs oil and helps reduce shine.
Bergamot. Essential Oil with antiseptic and healing actions.
Beta Hydroxy Acid. Also known as Salicylic Acid. Aids exfoliation by weakening the links between cells in the outer layer of dead skin, allowing the normal shedding process to occur at a more optimum rate. By helping new cells surface, it improves skin texture, unclogs pores, enhances penetration (and therefore effectiveness) of ingredients such as Vitamin C.
Bilberry Extract (AHA Fruit Acid). Natural AHA that helps retextures and erases fine lines, discolorations and blotches.
Bioflavonoids. Plant pigments whose potent antioxidant powers keep fruits and vegetables from turning brown. Act as powerful antioxidants in the body and considered effective free-radical scavengers. Also essential for the stability and absorption of antioxidant, Vitamin C, one of the key collagen-building catalysts. Found in apricots, cherries, cantaloupe, papaya, grape seed extract, citrus fruits, black tea, onions, parsley, legumes, red wine, red grapes and all blue and purple berries.
Bisabolol. Found as a natural component of chamomile, Bisabolol is an effective anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient. It is very soothing and calming for red, irritated skin.
Blackheads. A plug of keratin and sebum within a hair follicle that is blackened at the surface.
Blueberry Fruit Extract. See Vaccinium Angustifolia.
Broad Spectrum Protection. Protects from both ultraviolet light type A and B. Also commonly noted as UVA and UVB protection. Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter). Skin conditioning agent.
Caffeine. An active, natural ingredient found in coffee, tea, cacao and kola nuts that constricts blood vessels in the skin and reduces water leakage. Alleviates puffiness and under-eye darkness.
Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea Extract & White Tea Extract). A natural antioxidant in the tannin family, rich in chemicals known as polyphenols, which have potent antioxidant properties. A potent antioxidant shown to neutralize free radicals generated from inflammation, but may also have benefit against DNA mutations that are associated with cancers (of the skin). May also reverse sun damage.
Camphor. Essential Oil. Antiseptic and astringent qualities, gives a cool feeling to skin and therefore reduces inflammatory conditions. It has a fresh, clean and very piercing aroma. Oily skins seem to benefit most and it can help in case of acne and burns.
Candelilla Wax. Plant Wax: Smoothes, hydrates, and conditions.
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride. Plant-derived emollients that help bind water in the skin to prevent water loss.
Carauba Wax. Plant Wax: Smoothes, hydrates and conditions.
Castor Oil. Natural Ingredient. Hydrates and softens beard. It has binding and moisturizing properties. Castor oil is used in skin care products as an emollient. It is a hard, shiny oil that acts as barrier agent to protect against harsh climate. Soothing to skin. Makes hair shiny when used as a conditioner. Good for dry skin and brittle nails.
Centella Asiatica/Gotu Kola. Derived from the Gotu Kola plant, Centella Asiatica promotes collagen production and is known for its potent wound-healing properties. It is also a known anti-bacterial agent.
Ceramide. A lipid found in the skin that is necessary for normal skin function.
Chamomilla Recutita Matricaria (Chamomile Oil/Extract). An extract from the flowers and finely dissected leaves of Anthemis nobilis. Reduces inflammation and soothes sensitive skin.
Chrysin. A powerful antioxidant, a flavinoid, also derived from plant compounds. It is a powerful anti-inflammatory and reduces swelling and puffiness.
Citric Acid. A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from the fermented sugars of citrus fruits. Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal.
Cocoa Seed Butter. See Theorbroma Cacao.
Coenzyme Q-10. See Ubiquinone.
Collagen. The protein in skin that gives it firmness, structure, keeps it taut and resilient. With age, collagen is not only produced more slowly and degenerates more quickly, but also diminishes because of sun damage, pollution, free radical damage and genetics. Depletion of collagen is the main cause of wrinkles. Fortunately, ingredients that build collagen by either promoting its production or preventing its breakdown can be both consumed in foods and applied topically via skincare products.
Colloidal Sulfur. Reduces oil-gland activity and dissolves the skin's surface layer of dry, dead cells. This ingredient is commonly used in acne soaps and lotions, and is a major component in many acne preparations. It can cause allergic reactions in some sensitive people.
Comfrey Extract. See Symphytum Officinale.
Copper PCA. Powerful humectant that brings moisture from the atmosphere into skin.
Cucumber Extract. See Cucumis Sativus. Natural Ingredient. Helps bind moisture, soothes, tightens and refreshes.
Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber Extract). It is a natural anti-inflammatory. Works as a mild astringent, yet is gently cooling and soothing and can help reduce puffiness of the skin.
Diacetyl Boldine (Lumiskin™). Naturally derived from the bark of a Chilean tree, it is a potent antioxidant that brightens and evens skin tone.
Dimethicone. An oil-free, moisturizing ingredient that helps protect and condition skin and self-adjusts to absorb only where needed.
Dimethyl Sulfone (MSM). Essential to the structure of collagen; an ingredient which supplies sulfur to the skin. Since sulfur has been found to be present in the amino acids that comprise collagen it is believed that incorporating sulfur into skincare products and into a healthy diet could have a huge impact on skin health and preventing - even reversing - the signs of premature aging.
Dipeptide-2. A synthetic peptide containing valine and tryptophan.
Elastin. One of the skin's two structural proteins, the other being collagen. Gives skin its flexibility, enabling it to stretch, then snap back into place.
Emblica. See Phyllanthus Emblica.
Emollient. An ingredient that softens the skin. Similar in structure to natural lipids found in the skin, helps prevent dryness, soothes irritated skin and makes rough skin smooth.
Enzymes. Enzymes are special proteins that exist in the cells of all living beings. Their purpose is to facilitate naturally occurring biochemical reactions.
Epilobium Angustifolium Extract (Willowherb Extract). A safe, natural anti-inflammatory that works quickly to sooth irritated skin. Essential Fatty Acids. Essential fatty acids are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids and are crucial to our body's basic functioning. Since the body cannot make them they must be supplied by food or supplements, which is why they are called "essential" nutrients. Not only do they regulate several of our bodily functions, including the inflammatory response to injury, they also form part of the structure of cell membranes and are essential for rebuilding cells and producing new ones. Studies show that EFA's are essential to the normal health, function, and beauty of the skin. They can be found in vegetable oils (grape seed, evening primrose, sesame and soybean) and in seeds, nuts, legumes and whole grain products. Essential Oils. Oils that usually have the characteristic fragrance or flower of the plant.
Evening Primrose Oil. See Oenothera Biennis Oil.
Exfoliant. An ingredient or device, such as a washcloth or loofah, that revs up cell turnover by sloughing off dead surface cells. Improves skin texture, evens tone and increases radiance. Exfoliating acids such as Alpha Hydroxy and Beta Hydroxy Acids may also play a role in building skin-firming collagen and elastin. In peels, it is not only the exfoliating action of acids that increases collagen formation, but the pH fluctuation the skin experiences as it goes from acidic to neutral.
Farnesol. Widely found throughout the plant world and in many essential oils. It inhibits bacterial growth and has antioxidant properties.
Fibroblasts. Connective-tissue cells that secrete proteins, especially collagen, from which the extracellular matrix of connective tissue forms.
Free Radicals. Chemicals that destroy collagen and lead to wrinkles, lines, etc. New research shows that there are at least two different kinds of free radicals - those triggered by the body (metabolic) and those sparked by the sun and other environmental aggressors, such as pollution and smoke. Both types function like little darts, destroying skin-supporting collagen and elastin, but respond to different antioxidants. This is why skincare products that incorporate as many different kinds of antioxidants as possible are the most effective.
Fruit Extracts (Apple, Lemon, Orange).
Apple Fruit Extract - an Alpha Hydroxy Acid that exfoliates and tones.
Blueberry Fruit Extract - a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent
Lemon Fruit Extract - an astringent that reduces irritation and oiliness.
Orange Fruit Extract - increases circulation and reduces blemishes.
Pomegranate Fruit Extract - a powerful antioxidant
GABA. See Aminobutyric Acid.
Genistein. See Soy Isoflavones.
Glucosamine. Increase production of hyaluronic acid which in turn retains the skins natural hydration levels. One of Dr Gram's favorite ingredients.
Glycerin. A highly effective humectant present in all natural lipids. Attracts just the right amount of water to skin to maintain balance. Helps keep skin's intercellular layer intact, forming a natural barrier that keeps moisture in and skin smooth.
Glycolic Acid. A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from sugar. Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal.
Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice Root Extract). Soothes and calms the skin.
Grape Seed Extract. See Vitis Vinifera. Natural Ingredient. Potent anti-oxidant, helps reduce puffiness.
Green Tea Extract. See Camellia Sinensis Extract.
Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel). An extract from the bark of the witch hazel tree with proven astringent, toning, and anti-inflammatory effects. Also dissolves excess sebum without stripping skin. Has all the benefits of alcohol without the potential side effects.
Humectant. A substance used to attract moisture to the skin and retain it.
Hyaluronic Acid. See Sodium Hyaluronate.
Hydra-Pure Chelating Complex™. A proprietary complex of chelators which remove heavy metals from the surface of the skin, which are impurities that lead to various skin conditions.
Hyperpigmentation. The darkening of an area of the skin caused by an increase in melanin. Hyperpigmentation may be caused by sun damage, acne inflammation, or other skin injuries.
Inflammation. Causes damage to the skin by weakening collagen and elastin, increase risk of hyperpigmentation, and increases the risk of acne.
Inhiphase. See Pueraria Lobata
Jojoba Seed Extract. See Simmondsia Chinensis. Natural Ingredient. Highly penetrable oil. Derived from a desert plant, a fine, light moisturizer that lays down a protective film on skin. Stabilizes skin secretions and discourages blemishes. Ideal as a lubricant. Mexicans and Americans have long used the wax as a hair conditioner and skin lubricant. Excellent conditioner for hair, scalp, skin and nails.
Kaolin. Pure, white clay found naturally in the ground. The clay's mildly drying and disinfectant properties help to heal blemishes, while preventing new ones from forming. It is also great at absorbing moisture and oil on the skin.
Keratosis Pilaris. A very common genetic follicular condition that is manifested by the appearance of rough bumps on the skin and is often referred to as "chicken skin". It most often appears on the back and outer sides of the upper arms. It occurs because excess keratin, a natural protein in the skin, accumulates within the hair follicles, forming hard plugs.
Kombuchka. See Saccharomyces/Xylinum/Black Tea Ferment.
Lactic Acid. A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from dairy products. Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal.
Lavandula Angustifolia. Known for healing benefits.
Lavender. See Lavandula Angustifolia. Essential Oil. Disinfects and calms. Hair conditioner, soothing to skin. Floral, slightly herbal, light and clear with woody undertones. Valuable for most skin conditions since it has a healing effect on burns and sunburn and can be helpful in cases of acne, eczema and psoriasis.
Lemon Extract (AHA Fruit Extract). Essential Oil. Natural AHA that helps retexture, erase fine lines, discolorations and blotches. Helps inhibit bacteria for ultra-clean skin and helps restore natural pH level to skin. Helps brighten pale and dull complexions by removing dead skin cells. It smoothes out broken capillaries and has an effective cleansing action on greasy skin and hair.
Lemongrass Extract. Essential oil. Natural astringent and toner. It is the extract from the leaves of lemon grasses and has a strong odor of verbena. It is reported to normalize oil production. Strong, sweet and lemony. It gives good tone to the skin.
Licorice Root Extract. See Glycyrrhiza Glabra. Helps even skin tone and eliminate age spots.
Lime. Essential Oil. Astringent, toning and refreshing action. Can help clear greasy skin.
Linoleic Acid. An unsaturated fatty acid derived from plants that are essential to skin health.
Lumiskin™. See Diacetylboldine
Lycopenes. A newly recognized group of antioxidants derived from red fruits and vegetables, including watermelon, red grapes, red peppers, beets, pink grapefruit and especially tomatoes. Extremely effective at fending off environmental free radicals, helping to prevent the breakdown of collagen. May specifically diminish damage from free radicals sparked by the sun.
Malic Acid. A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from apples. Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal.
Mannitol. A sugar based humectant.
Matricaria Oil and Extract. See Chamomilla Recutita.
Melasma. A tan or dark facial skin discoloration. Although it can affect anyone, melasma is particularly common in women, especially pregnant women and those who are taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) medications. The symptoms of melasma are dark, irregular patches commonly found on the upper cheek, nose, lips, upperlip and forehead. Melasma is thought to be the stimulation of melanocytes or pigment-producing cells by the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone to produce more melanin pigments when the skin is exposed to sun.
Microexfoliation™. A gentle, non-irritating method of removing cellular debris from the surface of the skin, resulting in a smoother, firmer more even complexion.
Milia. Benign, keratin-filled cysts that can appear just under the epidermis.
MSM. See Dimethyl Sulfone.
Niacinamide. One of two principal forms of the B-complex Vitamin B3. It is a potent antioxidant and is a proven skin-lightening agent, reduces drying, redness, or irritation of your skin causing by inflammation. Increases in Cell renewal and decreases fine lines and wrinkles. Another favorite of Dr Gram's.
Noncomedogenic. Not tending to clog pores or cause blackheads.
Octinoxate. Chemical sunblock: UVB rays.
Octisalate. Chemical sunblock: UVB rays.
Oenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose Oil). A botanical property described as an anti-inflammatory, also improves skin hydration. Supplies gamma-linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid.
Olea Europea (Olive Oil). A natural super emollient; helps active ingredients to penetrate.
Olive Oil. See Olea Europea.
Orange Extract (AHA Fruit Extract). Essential Oil. Natural AHA that helps retexture, erase fine lines, discolorations and blotches. Refined AHA to exfoliate while cleansing. Beneficial as a pre-shave tool. Helps clear away dead skin cells. Has a characteristic orange taste and odor expressed from the fresh peel of ripe fruit of the sweet orange plant. A good skin tonic.
Organification. The process of organification allows trace minerals beneficial to the skin to be absorbed in a healthy way.
Osmosis Diffusion. Regulates the movement of water into and out of tissues in living organisms through a semi-permeable membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated one, until both are equalized. Oxybenzone. A potent sunscreen that absorbs UVA rays.
Palmitoyl Oligopeptide. The palmitic acid ester of a synthetic peptide consisting of two or more of the following amino acids: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, proline, serine, or valine.
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4. A reaction product of palmitic acid and Pentapeptide-4.
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7. Is the reaction product of palmitic acid and Tetrapeptide-7.
Panthenol (Pro Vitamin B5). Highly effective humectant, helps heal, aids in moisture retention. Conditioning, nourishing and helps repair. Helps improve skin condition, eliminates dryness. Panthenol is a good skin moisturizer. A nutritional factor reported to have excellent properties relating to repair and thickening of normal hair. It benefits hair by increasing lustre, aiding in moisture retention, and increasing elasticity. It helps to repair damage due to heat and may add up to 10% to hair thickness. Highly effective humectant with healing factor for scalp and skin. It is widely used in hair products and emollients.
Pea Extract. See Pisum Sativum.
Pentapeptide-4. A synthetic peptide containing lysine, serine and threonine.
Peach Extract. Natural Ingredient. Moisturizing and calming. The liquid obtained from the pulp of the peach. It is used as a natural flavoring and as an emollient. Enriching, moisturizing, and lightly toning.
Peppermint. Essential Oil. Refreshes, energizes, relaxes, soothes and stimulates. Inhabits bacterial for clearer skin. Clears your head. Cooling and antiseptic in bath and facial herbal preparations. It can help relieve itching, inflammation and sunburn. Also softens skin, helps to remove blackheads and is effective on greasy skin and hair.
Peptide. A peptide is a polymer consisting of 2 to approximately 20 amino acids connected by peptide bonds, a special linkage in which the nitrogen atom of one amino acid binds to the carboxyl carbon atom of another.
Pharmaceutical-Grade Ingredients. The highest standard used in formulating skincare products, utilizing ingredients synthesized or isolated in the most pure form.
Phospholipids. Natural substances found in all living cells that help draw water from the air and seal moisture into the skin. Phyllanthus Emblica. An herb derived from the bark, leaves, flowers and roots of the Phyllanthus emblica tree. Used in Ayurvedic medicine for many different medical treatments. Studies show that it has dramatic antioxidant benefits which work synergistically with Vitamin C.
Pisum Sativum (Pea Extract). Delivers time-released firming properties.
Propylene Glycol. A humectant and skin softener that binds and holds water to the skin. It is the most common moisture-carrying vehicle other than water itself in cosmetics. It has a great penetration through the skin and is therefore excellent for use in shaving gels.
Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis Oil (Sweet Almond Oil). A super emollient and natural oil.
Pueraria Lobata Root Extract. Extracted from the Kudzu Root, it is rich in Isoflavones and Genestein, and has powerful anti-inflammatory properties. It is very soothing and calming for the skin.
Punica Granatum Extract (Pomegranate). Powerful antioxidants.
Quercetin Caprylate. Antioxidant that reduces inflammation and soothes skin.
Ranunculus Ficaria (Pilewort Extract). Reduces inflammation.
Retinol. A Vitamin A derived ingredient that reduces skins own collagen-destroying enzymes which accelerate with aging. Also promotes collagen. Incorporating both Vitamin C and Retinol into a daily skincare regimen will help combat erosion of both collagen and elastin. Using a cream or gel with Vitamin C and retinol at night will help to jump-start collagen production.
Rice Bran Oil. Natural Ingredient. Smoothes and softens.
Ricinus Communis (Castor Seed Oil). A plant based skin-conditioning agent.
Rosacea. An inflammatory acne condition that is often genetic and/or caused by environmental triggers. Rose Hip Oil. Helps heal and calm skin, rich in vitamin C.
Rosemary. Essential Oil. Astringent. A natural skin purifier. Adds body and helps hair hold its natural shape. Also can be used as an aromatherapy fragrance. Rosemary has the folk reputation of stimulating the growth of hair and is beneficial to the skin. Gives shine to hair. Good for aching muscles when used in the bath. Excellent when mixed with essential oils of lavender as a hair and scalp conditioner. Helpful for sagging skin - toning and binding and may ease congestion, puffiness and swelling as well.
Rutin. Bioflavonoid that is extracted from various plants and used in cosmetics as an antioxidant and emollient
Sage. Essential Oil. Astringent, antiseptic, fragrant. Clear, herbal with sharp aroma.
Salicylic Acid. See Beta Hydroxy Acid. Derived from Willow Bark. Enhances penetration (and therefore effectiveness) of ingredients such as Vitamin C.
Salix Alba (Willow Bark Extract). A precursor to both Beta Hydroxy Acids (Salicylic Acid) and aspiring (Acetylsalicylic Acid), it is a potent anti-inflammatory and natural antibacterial agent.
Sea Kelp. Natural ingredient. Helps build strength into the skin. Softens and provides moisture.
Sea Salt. Natural exfoliant, astringent. Helps healing of open sores and pimples. Good to use in a body scrub mixture or a soothing foot bath.
Seaweed extract. Nourishes, purifies. Nutrient and mineral rich, the skin's favorite food. Because it helps promote circulation, it revitalizes the skin. Draws water to the skin. Anti-inflammatory.
Sesame. Natural ingredient. An emollient in creams, lotions & oils. Hair and skin softener.
Shea Butter. See Butyrospermum Parki. Used in Africa as a balm to soothe, makes skin more supple. It contains a substance that makes the skin supple, eases wrinkles and texturizes.
Silk Amino Acids. Protein derived from silk (fibroin) and silk cocoons. Helps enhance water retention, moisturizes, smoothes.
Silybum Marianum Fruit Extract (Silymarin). Potent antioxidant derived from Milk Thistle.
Silymarin. See Silybum Marianum Fruit Extract.
Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba Seed Extract). Moisturizes and softens the skin.
Slippery Elm Extract. One of the best poultices to soothe inflammation on skin, draw out impurities from the skin, speed healing and restore the tissue's integrity. Anti-inflammatory.
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP). A stabilized form of Vitamin C. It is an essential nutrient for collagen production and also serves as an antioxidant.
Sodium Bicarbonate. A gentle, naturally-occurring alkaline substance that is a superior neutralizer for acids.
Sodium Hyaluronate (Hyaluronic Acid). The natural occurring substance in skin that first attracts then locks water in the dermis, giving skin its thickness and reducing the appearance of wrinkles and lines. It can hold up to 1000 times its own weight in water. The "non-oil" component to the skin's natural moisturizing mechanism. As we age, our skin's overall water content, which plumps skin and makes lines less visible, and its hyaluronic acid stores both decline.
Sodium PCA. High-performance humectant recommended for dry, delicate and sensitive skin.
Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato Fruit Extract - Lycopenes). Helps to reduce wrinkles, fine lines and fend off free radicals; prevents collagen breakdown.
Soy Isoflavones (Genistein). An active ingredient found in Soy Extract that stimulates collagen production and diminishes collagen breakdown. In addition to free radicals, skin contains naturally occurring enzymes that erode collagen. Genistein, isolated by Dr. Genistein in Switzerland, has been shown to block and diminish these collagen-destroying enzymes significantly. Also thickens skin dramatically by working like estrogen, but without the negative side effects of HRT (hormone replacement therapy). Gentle for all skin types and non-irritating; works well with all other anti-aging ingredients.
Soy Protein. Natural Ingredient. Nourishes.
SPanthenol. A Vitamin B complex factor used widely in skin and hair products for its conditioning properties.
Squalane. An ingredient that can be found in olive oil, wheat germ oil and rice bran oil. It is an emollient that prevents water evaporation from the skin and it is a constituent of skin.
Squalene. Derived from wheat germ; lubricates and softens skin. Effective emollient.
Sulfur. See Colloidal Sulfur.
Sweet Almond Oil. See Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis Oil.
Symphytum Officinale (Comfrey Extract). An ingredient that has traditionally been used to treat wounds. The roots and leaves of comfrey contain allantoin, a substance that promotes wound healing and tissue regeneration.
Tego Cosmo. See 1-Methylhydantoin-2-imide.
Tetrapeptide-7. A synthetic peptide containing arginine, glutamine, glycine and proline.
Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa Seed Butter). Softens and lubricates the skin.
Titanium Dioxide. A physical sunscreen that protects against both UVA and UVB rays.
Tomato Fruit Extract. See Solanum Lycopersicum.
Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q-10). A compound that is made in our bodies and used by cells to produce the energy they need to grow and stay healthy. An antioxidant with actions very similar to those of Vitamin E, it has been found to be an excellent defender against free radicals and, when used regularly over time, may help ease lines and wrinkles by building collagen.
Vaccinium Angustifolia (Blueberry Fruit Extract). A powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
Vitamin A. (Retinyl Palmitate, Retinol and Retinoic Acid). An antioxidant essential to the maintenance and repair of epithelial tissue. Stimulates new skin cells and inhibits the body's natural enzymes that break down collagen. May prevent premature wrinkling.
Vitamin C. (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbyl Glucoside). An antioxidant vitamin necessary for tissue growth and repair, as well as collagen formation. One of the best free radical scavengers, it seems to combat free radicals triggered by both the body and the environment. Works synergistically with Vitamin E.
Vitamin E. (Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopherol, A-Tocopherol). The first recognized fat-soluble antioxidant usable in skin. One of the most potent antioxidants, particularly good at defending against and disabling free radicals made by the body. Essential to tissue repair. Works synergistically with Vitamin C.
Vitis Vinifera (Grape Seed Extract). A rich source of bioflavonoids, powerful free-radical scavengers and of oligomeric proanthocyanidins, a very potent antioxidant.
Water-Soluble Silicones. Oil-free, non-comedogenic ingredients that replenish moisture prevent further moisture loss and self-adjust to skin's needs, absorbing only where needed.
Wheat Protein. Nourishes and tightens. Strengthens. Moisturizer that protects skin from environmental effects. Emulsifying effect on hair.
White Clay. A natural mineral that absorbs excess skin oil.
White Tea Extract. See Camellia Sinensis.
White Thyme. Essential Oil. Healing and toning action Essential Oil. Deep, earthy aroma.
Willowherb Extract. See Epilobium Angustifolium.
Witch Hazel. See Hamamelis Virginiana. Acts as astringent, natural extract of hamameis plant that soothes irritated skin.
Ylang Ylang. Essential Oil. Heavy, exotic aroma. Balancing action on sebum, effective for both oily and dry skin.
Zinc Oxide. Broad spectrum UVA/UVB protection, physical sunscreen.
Zinc PCA. Links the amino acids necessary for collagen formation; prevents damage to collagen and elastin fibers.